Nomenclature and Structure of Aldehydes and ketones Aldehydes and ketones: nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group.
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Methods of preparation: Aldehydes- Stephen reduction – general reaction and examples (R=CH3 and C2H5). Preparation of benzaldehyde -Rosemond reduction, Etard reaction and Gatterman Koch reaction. Ketones-from RCOCl with dialkyl cadmium, Friedel-Crafts reaction – general reactions and examples (R=CH3 and C2H5).
Physical Properties Physical properties: boiling points and solubility.
Chemical Reactions Chemical properties: Nucleophilic addition reactions- HCN and NaHSO3- general reaction, and examples, -mechanism of addition (HCN). Condensation reactions with derivatives of ammonia- NH2OH, NH2NH2, NH2NHC6H5, 2,4- DNPH, Clemmensen and Wolff-Kishner reductions -general equations and examples by taking HCHO, CH3CHO, CH3COCH3, C6H5CHO. Tests to distinguish aldehydes from ketones – Tollens’ reagent and Fehling’s solution. Addition of alcohol to aldehyde (to form an acetal) and ethylene glycol to ketone –general equations and examples. For ketones: Haloform reaction for methyl ketones – general reaction, examples with CH3COC6H5, CH3COCH3. Reactions due to -hydrogen: 1. Reason for acidic nature of -hydrogen. 2. Aldol reaction: addition and condensation for CH3CHO, CH3COCH3. 3. Crossed aldol condensation: between benzaldehyde and acetophenone Cannizzaro’s reaction (disproportionation reaction) for HCHO and C6H5 CHO. Electrophilic substitution reaction: nitration of C6H5CHO.
Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones Uses of aldehydes and ketones
Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group Carboxylic acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature of COOH group (reaction with Na, NaOH, NaHCO3)- with reasons, effect of EDG, e.g.: CH3 and EWG, e.g.: Cl on acid strength, with reasons. Compare acid strengths among: i)                 formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid. ii)                formic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid. iii)              chloro, fluoro, bromoacetic acids. iv)      acetic acid, mono, di, and       trichloroacetic acids
Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids Methods of preparation: oxidation of primary alcohols and toluene using alkaline KMnO4/ H 3 O +, hydrolysis of nitriles, amides and esters and from Grignard reagent – general reactions and examples (R=CH3, C2H5, C6H5).
Physical Properties Physical properties: boiling points and solubility.
Chemical Reactions Chemical properties: reaction with PCl3, PCl5, SOCl2, with ammonia, decarboxylation, halogenation (X = Cl, Br)– HVZ reaction- general reactions for all and examples with R=CH3, C2H5, C6H5 (wherever applicable). Nitration and bromination of benzoic acid.
Uses of Carboxylic Acids Uses of carboxylic acids.