Introduction to Electric Charges


Elementary charge (e): Smallest possible unit of charge. Equal to the charge n one proton or the magnitude of charge on one electron, which is 1.602 x 10-19 C. Also called electron charge. Sometimes uses symbol qe.
Coulomb (C): SI unit for electric charge. The amounts of charge transferred in 1 second by a current of 1 ampere’
Conductors: substances that allow passage of electric charges through them easily are called conductors. Examples: metals, human bodies, animal bodies and earth are conductors.
Insulators: most of the non metals like glass, plastic, wood offer very high resistance to the passage of electricity through them, such substances are called insulators.
Charging by induction: The process by which an electrically charged object brought near a neutral object creates a charge separation in that object.
  • Polarization is the separation of positive and negative charges concentrated in different areas, giving them a charge distribution.