Ever since the days of Rene Descartes, the French philosopher, mathematician and biologist of seventeenth century, all human knowledge especially natural sciences were directed to develop technologies which add to the creature comforts of human lives, as also value to human life.
The whole approach to understanding natural phenomena became anthropocentric. Physics and chemistry gave rise to engineering, technologies and industries which all worked for human comfort and welfare.
The major utility of the biological world is as a source of food. Biotechnology, the twentieth century off-shoot of modern biology, changed our daily life as its products brought qualitative improvement in health and food production.
Biotechnology deals with large scale production and marketing of products and processes using live organisms, cells or enzymes.
Among many, the two core techniques that enabled birth of modern biotechnology are :
  • Genetic engineering
  • Bio process engineering
Modern biotechnology using genetically modified organisms was made possible only when man learnt to alter the chemistry of DNA and construct recombinant DNA.
This key process is called recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. This process involves the use of restriction endonucleases, DNA ligase, appropriate plasmid or viral vectors to isolate and ferry the foreign DNA into host organisms, expression of the foreign gene, purification of the gene product, i.e., the functional protein and finally making a suitable formulation for marketing. Large scale production involves use of bioreactors.

List of Topics

Principles of Biotechnology Genetic engineering
Bioprocess engineering
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes
Cloning Vectors
Competent Host
Process of Recombinant DNA Technology Isolation of Genetic Material (DNA)
Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations
Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host cell
Obtaining the foreign product
Downstream Processing