Classification Classification: mono, di, tri, allylic, and benzylic alcohols, mono, di and trihydric phenols and cresols. Ethers – simple and mixed.
Nomenclature Nomenclature of alcohols, phenols, ethers.
Structures of Functional Groups Structures of Functional Groups.
Alcohols and Phenols Preparation of alcohols: by acid catalysed hydration of alkene, general reaction and examples, by hydroboration-oxidation of propene, from carbonyl compounds. Hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones, reduction of carboxylic acids and using Grignard reagent- general reactions and examples (R as H, CH3 and C2H5 wherever applicable. Preparation of phenol: From: i)                 benzene via sulphonation. ii)                diazonium salt iii)              cumene. Physical properties of primary alcohols and phenol: Boiling point and solubility. Chemical properties of primary alcohols and phenol: discuss and compare acidic nature of alcohol and phenol, with reasons. Effect of electron withdrawing groups (EWG) E.g.: NO2 and electron donating groups (EDG) E.g.; CH3, on acid strength of phenol, with reasons. Esterification and acylation of alcohols/phenols- general reactions, examples with R=CH3, C2H5, conversion of salicylic acid into aspirin. Dehydration of alcohols, oxidation using PCC -general reactions, examples with R = CH3, C2H5. Mechanism of dehydration of ethanol into ethene. Identification of 1°, 2°, 3° alcohols: Lucas test–observation and inference, reaction in presence of heated copper, equations. Uses: methanol and ethanol. Reactions of phenol: 1) Electrophilic substitution: a) with dil. HNO3 and conc. HNO3. b) Br2 in CS2 (0°C) and Br2 / water. c) Kolbe’s reaction. d) Riemer-Tieman reaction 2) Reaction of phenol with zinc dust 3) Oxidation of phenol by air and by chromic acid. Uses of phenols
Some Commercially Important Alcohols Methanol and Ethanol.
Ethers Ethers: Preparation – by dehydration of ethanol, Williamson’s ether synthesis – general reaction – for aliphatic and phenolic ethers, examples- giving reason for proper choice of reactants wherever applicable. Physical Properties: boiling points and solubility. Chemical reactions: discuss the reaction of ethers with HX (reactivity of HX to be compared). Electrophilic substitution reaction for anisole: bromination, nitration, acetylation, alkylation (methylation). Uses of ethers

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