Structure of Amines Structure of amines, and aryl amines,
Classification  Classification- 1°, 2°, 3°
Nomenclature Nomenclature
Preparation of Amines Reduction of nitrobenzene, reduction of nitrile and amide – general reactions and examples (R=CH3, C2H5), ammonolysis of alkyl halides -general reactions only – up to quaternary ammonium salt, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis -general reaction and example with R=CH3, Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction -general reaction and examples (R=CH3, C6H5)
Physical Properties 1. Compare boiling point and solubility of 1°, 2°, 3° amines. 2. Compare base strength of NH3, CH3NH2 and C6H5NH2 in aqueous medium. 3. Compare the trends in the base strength of methyl substituted amines in gaseous state and in aqueous medium.
Chemical Reactions Acylation – acetylation for 1° and 2° amine using CH3COCl, Carbylamine reaction (test for 1° amine), and reaction with nitrous acid – general reaction and examples (R=CH3, C2H5, C6H5) Reaction with Heinsberg’s reagent to identify/ distinguish 1°, 2°, 3° amines. Electrophilic substitution reactions for aniline: bromination, nitration (significance of acetylation) and sulphonation. Cyanides and isocyanides.
Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds General formula ArN X2. Example: C6H5 N2 Cl, C6H5 N2 H SO4 Preparation from aniline-diazotisation, chemical reactions: Sandmeyer’s reaction -replacement of diazo group by Cl, Br, CN, replacement of diazo group by I and H (reduction using H3PO2). Retention of diazo group: coupling reaction- formation of azo dyes, example – C6H5N2Cl with aniline and phenol. Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.