Carbohydrates Classification-based on hydrolysis – mono, oligo and polysaccharides examples, monosaccharides – aldoses and ketoses, examples, reducing and non-reducing sugars examples. Glucose: occurrence, some reactions of glucose- with HI, NH2OH, acetic anhydride, Br2/ water – their significance with respect to the structure of glucose. Open chain structure of glucose compared with glyceraldehyde for D and L configuration. Haworth’s (pyranose) structure of α and β-D (+) glucose. Fructose: occurrence, Haworth’s (furanose) structure for α and β-forms. Disaccharide: examples, glycosidic linkage – Maltose, lactose and sucrose- monosaccharide units, type of glycosidic linkage, reducing property with reasons, Haworth’s structures. Invert sugar – composition. Polysaccharides: Starch – monomer units, glycosidic linkage, components-difference in their structure (explanation only) and solubility in water. Cellulose and glycogen– monosaccharide, glycosidic linkage, structure (explanation only). Importance of carbohydrate.
Proteins α- amino acids, general formula, zwitter ion form of α- amino acid, general formula. Classification of α-amino acids: acidic, basic, neutral – examples, essential and non-essential examples. Configuration of optically active α-amino acids (found in proteins). Peptide bond and dipeptide, formation with equations. Number of peptide bonds in di, tri, tetra and pentapeptides. Polypeptides. 9 Proteins: classification based molecular shape –fibrous and globular, examples. Structure of protein – qualitative idea about primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures (diagrams not required). Denaturation of protein – examples.
Enzymes Enzymes as biocatalysts – examples.
Vitamins Definition and Importance, Classification: water soluble and fat soluble-examples. Diseases due to deficiency of vitamin- A, D, C, and B12.
Nucleic Acids Polynucleotides, components of DNA and RNA, formation of nucleoside and nucleotide, formation of dinucleotide. Poly nucleotides-RNA, DNA. Structure of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.